Peanut plant (Arachis hypogea L.) is a class of leguminoceae family. Peanut comes from Latin America and is developed by Asia countries such as India, Philipine, Japan, and Indonesia. In Indonesia, based on research result of PEA research center in Bogor, has been known 4 (four) kinds of Peanut. They are Elephant, Bull, Tiger, and Deer varieties. Deer variety has the biggest variety, about 49,9 % from meat content.
Peanut oil has pale yellow color which is extracted from peanut, contains of 40-50% oil. The oil of peanut plant has high monounsaturated concentration of fatty acid. It decomposites or reduces cholesterol concentration. This oil is believed to make our age longer, because it contains of polyunsaturated fatty acid that reduces oxidation reaction which makes oil changes the color to be dark. Peanut contains of 45% monounsaturated fatty acid, 38% polyunsaturated fatty acid and 17% saturated fatty acid.
Peanut Oil Composition
Peanut oil contains of 76-82% unsaturated fatty acid which is classified of 40-45% oleic and 30-35% linoleic. The saturated fatty acid contains of palmitic (the most acid), exactly myristic more or less 5%. High linoleic saturated content will decrease oil stability. While oil stability will increase with hydrogenation process or antioxidant adding. In peanut oil, there is tocoferol compound that is a natural antioxidant and presents oxidation process of peanut oil effectively.
Peanut oil is better than maize oil, cotton-seed oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil for salad dressing and can be stored below temperature -110C. It is because peanut is a solid formed amorf where the solid layer isn’t destroyed when freezing process. Peanut is cooled down and produces amount of solid trigliside.
The Use of Peanut Oil
Peanut oil is used as edible purpose and non-edible purpose. As edible material, peanut oil is used as fry oil, basic material in margarine making, mayonnaise, salad dressing and shortening. As with whole peanuts, peanut oil is a dangerous substance to persons with a peanut allergy.
Another usage is for non-edible materials. In industry, peanut is used for soap industry, face cream, shaving cream, shampoo and cosmetic formation scope.
At the 1900 Paris Exhibition, the Otto Company demonstrated that peanut oil could be used as a source of fuel for the diesel engine as the request of the French Government. It’s also used as the main ingredient in some ear-wax removing products along with almond oil. Peanut oil is also used as a fecal softener.
Knowing that peanut oil is very useful, it’s necessary if it’s developed better.